Tutorials

  • Overview of new features in 2018 (Announcement) (YouTube video): An overview of the new features in one minute
  • Musikwissenschaft: RISM – Internationales Quellenlexikon der Musik (YouTube video): An overview of RISM's work and the online catalog, part of the "Tübinger Tutorials zur Musikwissenschaft" series at the Universität Tübingen (in German)

Older guides Please note: These have not yet been updated to reflect the new (July 2018) interface.

  • Quick guide to the online catalog (PDF) (YouTube video): This very short video demonstrates a simple search, using the filters, and what a typical catalog entry has.
  • City Guide (PDF) (YouTube video): How to find sources that are located today in a particular city or country (sources in Rome, sources in Mexico, etc.)
  • The Fifth Field (YouTube video): How to add additional search fields by combining previous searches
  • Incipit search (YouTube video): An overview to searching for music incipits
  • Printed music in RISM (YouTube video): Over 100,000 items of printed music from A/I and B/I added to the online catalog in May 2015
  • New (2014) features of the online catalog (YouTube video): This video points out the new (2014) features of the RISM online catalog, including the search for digitized music, improved autocomplete, Boolean search, on-screen piano keyboard for entering incipits, sort results, atom feed, clearer attributions

RISM Directory of Library Sigla

 

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Simple search

The single search box conducts an undifferentiated full-text search. Truncate words using * (asterisk). Use “ ” (quotation marks) to search for an exact phrase. You may use the Boolean operators AND, OR, NOT (in capital letters).

Examples:

 
 Zar*
 Autograph Mozart
 “don giovanni”
 piano sonatas
 schumann NOT robert

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Advanced search

Use up to three search boxes and a series of drop-down menus to direct a search to specific indexes. Truncation (*) and searching by phrase (" ") are allowed. The fourth search box is populated by the on-screen piano keyboard. A fifth search box appears after your initial search and it contains the session's previous searches.

All fields

This is especially useful for searching the fields not indexed (listed below), such as opus number, role names,  cities, tempos, or notes fields. Searching in a specific index (when possible) will result in a more accurate search than searching in All fields.

Title

Enter the title, genre (for generic titles), title as on source, or text incipit. Use the plural for form/genre terms. Alternate titles are searched automatically. Titles as they appear on the source must be searched in the field "All fields."
Examples:
Music for the royal fireworks
Symphonies
Ich bin nicht gern allein

Composer

Name of composer. Name variants are automatically searched. For best results, include the diacritics when applicable (for example Žába, not Zaba).

Genre

Enter the form, genre, or type. In general, use the term in English and in the plural.
Examples:
Sonatas
Psalms

Music incipit

Enter the pitches of the music incipit. Omit sharps, flats, and naturals. See also Music incipits.

Music incipit (with transposition)

Enter the pitches of the music incipit if you wish to allow transpositions.

Other names

Names, initials, pseudonyms, etc. of individuals who do not function as composers: arrangers, co-composers, copyists, dedicatees, librettists, performers, previous owners, printers, engravers, etc. Name variants are searched automatically.

Catalog of works number

The abbreviation of a thematic catalog or works catalog and number.
Examples:
BWV 175
HelH 198

Key

 
  • Major and minor keys
    • Case is ignored (G or g)
    • Enter x or # for sharp keys (Gx or gx or G# or g#) and b for flat keys (Gb or gb)
  • Church modes (see Ecclesiastical modes in Abbreviations, below)
    • Western church modes (to be entered as 1t to 12t)
    • Byzantine church modes
 

Provenance

Names of people or institutions who had prior ownership of the source. Can also include stamps, bookplates, and signatures.
Examples:
MUZEUM | TIFC | WARSZAWA
Miss Blair
Ex | Bibliotheca | Poelchaviana

Source type

Enter one of the following terms, or use the drop-down list above the search boxes.

For notated music:    

  • autograph: Autograph music manuscript, written completely or mostly in the composer’s hand
  • possible autograph: A music manuscript where there is a degree of uncertainty whether the manuscript is in the composer's hand
  • partly autograph: A music manuscript in which significant portions of the manuscript are in the composer's hand
  • manuscript: A music manuscript copy, not in the composer's hand
  • manuscript copy with autograph annotations: A music manuscript copy in which corrections or small additions are in the composer’s hand
  • print: A printed music edition
  • print with autograph annotations: A printed music edition with some annotations in the hand of the composer
  • print with non-autograph annotations: A printed music edition with some annotations, not in the hand of the composer

For other types of documents:

  • libretto, handwritten
  • libretto, printed
  • treatise, handwritten
  • treatise, printed
  • other
 

Watermarks (Wasserzeichen)

Enter English terms.
Examples:
crescent
flower
GFA

Liturgical festival

Church feasts and holidays, most of which use the forms found in the Liber usualis.
See also the Liber Usualis free online from McGill University.
Examples:
Pentecostes
Trinitas
Pascha
August 13th festival (Moravian Church)

Institution

Institutions that are related to the work as dedicatees or performers (but not previous owners)

Scoring

Search for works that include specific instruments or voices, using RISM instrument abbreviations (see below). Also known as instrumentation or medium of performance.

Library siglum

Enter a RISM library siglum. Use also to search sources in a particular country or city (see City Guide)
Examples:
D-B
GB-Lbl
US-Eu
PL-*

See also the Online directory of library sigla

RISM ID no.

Enter the record number assigned by RISM (can be nine or more digits), which is found in the lower right of each record.  
Examples:
806351640
230009947
000051780
00000990034211

Year

Enter a single year.
Example:
1806

Shelfmark

Enter the shelfmark or call number as given by the holding library or previous institutions. This field also searches additional shelfmarks and former shelfmarks (olim).
Examples:
MS 444
R.d.26
M1500.M46 L58 Case

Language

Currently, the search by language does not work.

     

    Publisher

    Search for printed editions from a particular publisher. 
    Examples
    Johann Jakob Lotter & Sohn or also  Johann Jakob Lotter Sohn
    Lotter
    Charles Dibdin

    A/I or B/I number

    Search for printed editions by the sequential A/I or B/I numbers used in the print publications. Spaces, if any, must be entered exactly.
    Examples:
    S 6989
    HH 6429a
    AA 898 I,1

    For the superscripts in B/1, use a vertical line, slash, or minus sign. Note that some numbers include brackets.
    1684|3
    1684/3
    1684-3

    [1536]|8

    Plate number

    Search by plate numbers. You can enter strings of numbers and/or characters. 
    Examples:
    424
    L. M. 2. A. 31

    Examples:
    1) All sources by Fanny Hensel for lieder in A major

    Select the field Composer and enter hensel, fanny
    Select the field Genre and enter lieder
    Select the field Key and enter A

    2) All sources found outside of Austria where Joseph Haydn shows up in a function other than composer (such as dedicatee or former owner)

    Select the field Other names and enter hadyn, joseph
    In the next line, select not as a Boolean indicator. Then select the field Library siglum and enter A-* to exclude sources anywhere in Austria.

     

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    Search results

    The search results are given in a numbered list. The results list may show the composer, title, key, scoring summary, A/1 or B/1 numberthematic catalog number, source type, library siglum, and the shelfmark.

    Refine the results by using the filters on the left: Digitized musicGenre, Composer, Source type, Scoring (this is a summary of the full scoring), PublisherYearLibrary siglum, and Series.

    At the end, there is a section called Authority data which lists RISM's indexed personal names, institutions (organizations), and secondary literature. Results that appear in the RISM indexes will lead to fuller information, for example biographical information and name variants for people, postal addresses for institutions, and bibliographic information for works of secondary literature.

    After you select a filter, it appears above the list of results. To remove a search filter, simply click the X next to the filter.

    Digitized music includes musical sources that have been scanned by the holding institution and made available online. A direct link to the digitized source is provided in the record. Clicking on the filter for digitized music will display only those records that contain links to digital surrogates.

    Click on any of the search results to view the full record. 

    Full record display

    The full record display describes the source in full, often including incipits. Consult the General abbreviations and descriptions, below, as required.

    If you click on a term marked in blue, a window opens with further information.

    If you see the phrase In collection near the bottom of the record, it means that the work described belongs to a collective manuscript or printed edition. Clicking on the blue number will take you to the collection's main entry. From there, you can view the records for the rest of the works in the collection.

    If you see the phrase "Initial entry" or "Following entries" in the record for a printed music edition, note that linking records via initial/following entry corresponds with the suborder adopted in the printed volumes of series A/I, in which identical titles were indicated with a dash beneath the first printed edition mentioned. This system did not correspond to any hierarchy in a sense of first editions and reprints. However, linking in the catalog is necessary in order to reflect similarities in the content of the titles. Furthermore, since the subsequent entries often lack short and/or diplomatic titles, a link is made to have a clear reference to the title of the first entry.

    The complete description guidelines may be viewed in the training version of Muscat, RISM's cataloging program.

    Music incipits

    See also the tutorials above.

    There are two different ways of searching for music incipits (beginning notes):

    1. Search by note names 

    In the Advanced search, select the field Music incipit or Music incipit (with transposition). Enter either upper or lower case letters. For the English note name B, either B or the German H may be used. This is a very basic search: omit accidentals, sharps, flats, and natural signs because they are ignored in this field. For example, for the note F-sharp, enter an F.

    The field Music incipit is an exact search. Selecting the option Music incipit (with transposition) will also search intervals and include incipits that have been transposed from the initial search inquiry.

    Examples:

    1. Music incipit: CDEFGFEADGGAGF
    Bach, BWV 846 (RISM ID no. 230005352)

    2. The same search using Music incipit (with transposition):

    Della Ciaia, Soggetto (RISM ID no. 000142611)

    2. Search using the piano keyboard 

    Underneath the search boxes you will see a five-octave on-screen piano keyboard, which can also be used to enter music incipits. The piano keyboard enables a chromatic search and takes into account exact half steps. You can search either the beginning of the incipit, with or without transposition (Incipit beginning via piano keyboard) or any section of the incipit, with or without transposition (Anywhere in incipit via piano keyboard).

    Please note the following when using the piano keyboard:

    • Notes can be entered by clicking on a piano key. When you hover over a piano key with your mouse, a letter or number appears in red over each key. These are shortcut keys that you can use to enter the incipit with your computer keyboard.
    • Enharmonic tones are automatically searched: the black key for the note F-sharp also searches for the note G-flat — even when Fx appears in the search field. The accidental only applies to the note directly preceding it.
    • Select the option "with transposition" if you want octaves to be ignored, otherwise the octaves you indicate are strictly observed.
    • The keys sound when you click on them.
    • The notes appear on the staff and can be directly edited by clicking to the right of the note you want to change.
    • The search can also find similar invervals.
    • If you want to search anywhere in the incipit, enter at least 3 notes.

    The incipits are rendered using the Verovio library.

    General incipit search tips
    • Rhythm and rests are ignored
    • The search is truncated right, meaning that music incipits are retrieved that are longer than the search string
    • Grace notes and ornaments are searched if you enter them and ignored if you do not
    • Start with a longer incipit and delete notes until you get results of a reasonable size
    • Combine the incipit search with other fields and make use of the search filters 
    • Tied notes do not have to be entered twice

    And remember:
    The music incipits in RISM are not standardized in any way. Rather, they reflect the incipits as they appear on the sources themselves. Accordingly, there may be slight variations among different copies of what is essentially the same work.

    Not every source described in the RISM catalog includes a music incipit. Sometimes incipits consist of only the text incipits or basic information about the movement (such as time signature or tempo marking).

    Several external projects have built searches using RISM's incipits, each with different goals and strategies. We invite you to try them out:

     

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    How do I... : Tips & tricks

    1. Search the holdings of a specific library
      Do an Advanced Search and enter the library siglum (abbreviation) in the field Library siglum (search the directory of library sigla here) and click Search. Now you are looking at only the records of a particular library or institution. Use the filters on the left to further refine your search.
       
    2. View variants of a name
      You have multiple versions of Beethoven's name. Which should I choose, and how can I see the whole list of possible variants?

      Name variants are displayed when you type in the Simple Search, or in the Advanced Search in the fields All fields, Composer, and Other names. All variants point to the same person. To view all variants at once, go to a record where the composer is named and click on the name, or view RISM's full record for the person. Alternate names are listed there and are based on standard reference works.
       
    3. Navigate between individual entries in a collection
      We admit navigation isn't ideal but there is a workaround: Do an Advanced search and fill out the fields Library siglum and Shelfmark, then click Search. The default order of entries in the search results gives you the individual entries in page number order. Or, use the Sort by option to sort the results. From any result, you can use the arrows in the upper right of a record to navigate.

       

    4. Access all records in the database at once
      Simply click Search without entering anything and the results will be all records in the database.

       

    5. Search for items in other languages (sinfonie, symphonie, symphony, etc.)
      A good strategy is to search for the genre in English and in the plural: symphonies

       

    6. Cite RISM records
      Use the RISM ID number found in the lower right of each record. Numbers from the A/I or B/I printed book series are also valid. For electronic publications, please link using permalinks.

       

    7. Download RISM data for reuse or to experiment with
      Each record has links at the bottom that say Show MarcXML and Show RDF/XML. In addition, all records may be downloaded in MARCXML and RDF format from the linked open data page.

       

    8. Find digitized versions of sources in RISM
      The RISM catalog links to digitized versions of musical sources when known. These links can be conveniently accessed through the link Digitized music that appears at the top of the filters after any search.

      Many musical sources are described in the printed RISM volumes but are not (yet) in the online catalog. Some external projects compile known digital surrogates for these sources. These are linked on the RISM publications page next to the book's description. 

       

    9. Find a source if it's not in RISM
      The website Digital Resources in Musicology (Stanford University) offers a substantial list of links to freely available resources of use to musicians and musicologists, organized by topic. 

      The Guide to Digital Scores from Princeton University focuses on free and fee-based materials. Notated music in all formats is included (scores, parts, etc.).

      See also our Resources page.
       
    10. Link to a record or a search
      The URLs in your browser's address bar are not stable. To link to a specific catalog entry, use the Permalink located just above the composer's name and marked with a chain link icon. (Please note: The permalinks that point to RISM ID numbers beginning with zeros, such as 00000993104372, are stable but do not resolve at the moment [September 2019]. We are working on fixing this as soon as possible.) 

      To link to a more complex search string (such as all records by a certain composer, or all symphonies in a certain library), combine this address (without quotes):
      "https://opac.rism.info/search?View=rism&"

      with the parameter you wish to search:

      author=   for composer 
      callno=   for shelfmark/call number
      institution=   for an institution that appears in the field Provenance
      localkey=   or documentid= or id= for RISM ID number
      q=   or query=   for a keyword search anywhere
      subject=   for a genre
      title=   for filing title
      year=   for year
      siglum=   for library siglum
      pnd= for PND number
      mtype= for material type

      and add your search string.

      Example: Link to all sources by Marianna Martines:
      https://opac.rism.info/search?View=rism&author=Marianna+Martines&Language=en

      Tips:
      - Add &Language=en to the end of the URL to keep the interface in English (or it will default to German). 
      - Truncating searches with an asterisk (*) is possible in some cases.
      - Blank spaces must be filled with a plus sign (+).
      - Combine parameters with an ampersand (&).

       

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    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    1. What is in RISM?
      Descriptions of historical musical sources, meaning music manuscripts, printed editions, libretti, and treatises. For more information, please see the page Content.
       
    2. Why isn't my article or other important research cited in RISM?
      We try to stay abreast of current research but invariably we miss some things. Please alert us to new research or articles we may have overlooked.
       
    3. How can I report an error?
      Any and all corrections are welcome. Please fill out this form or send us an e-mail.
       
    4. Where can I get copies of the music?
      Music must be obtained directly from the holding institution itself. Some libraries offer digitized collections on their websites; whenever possible, RISM links to these digital surrogates directly in the records. If you do not find a digitized copy of the source, you must contact the library. Click on the library siglum to find the contact information.
       
    5. When I search for a composer, I get results where the name of the composer isn't anywhere on the record. Why is this?
      Your search also searches collection records (for example in manuscript anthologies) and RISM's records for personal names, institutions, and secondary literature. The name may, for example, appear as a variant if you click on the composer's name, or it may appear on the main entry record if the item belongs to a collection.
       
    6. Records are inconsistent: sometimes a word is spelled with a "v" in one record but a "u" in the next. Same with "j" and "i". Why is this?
      The field "Title on source" transcribes the title exactly as it appears on the source, including the original spelling from the time and any mistakes the copyist made. This accounts for the variations you see. The titles at the top of the records and the incipits are standardized and reflect modern usage.
       
    7. Why do some works have different opus numbers?
      A work my have different opus numbers because in the past, opus numbers were assigned by the publishers. Different publishers sometimes used different numbers for the same piece or the same number for different pieces. RISM records can reflect what is on the sources themselves as well as standard opus numbers as found in the secondary literature. 
       
    8. Why do some printed editions have two A/I numbers, such as G 325 and GG 325? What does the second entry (GG 325) refer to?
      You may ignore the second entry with the double letters. Entries for printed editions with double letters appeared in the supplement to the print volume.
       
    9. Why can't I find a printed edition using the B/I number?
      RISM records are sometimes inconsistent for entries from B/I, but we are currently revising them. A good strategy is to do an Advanced Search in the field A/I or B/I number first, and if you don't find what you're looking for, search for the same nunber (in quotation marks) in the field All fields. Keep in mind that not everything from B/I is in the catalog; see the Content page for the current state.

    10. Why do the search filters seem incomplete?
      A maximum of 100 values are shown when you click on "Show more..." in the search filters (found on the left after you complete a search). 
       
    11. The online catalog doesn't display properly on my screen (words are cut off, etc.).
      Try changing the resolution of your computer screen.
       
    12. Can I reuse data from the RISM online catalog? 
      Yes! Both the authority records as well as the records for the sources themselves are freely available as linked open data through a Creative Commons CC-BY license. You can download the data in MARCXML and RDF format. More information is available on the linked open data page.
       
    13. Is there an OCLC record for the RISM catalog?
      Yes! This is the OCLC record for the RISM online catalog that you can use so that your library users can it in your local discovery systems: OCLC #913332994
    14. How can I participate in or contribute to RISM?
      We warmly welcome anybody who wants to take part in RISM's projects.

      Individuals can support RISM by:
      - reporting mistakes in the online catalog
      - sending us descriptions of sources not yet in RISM
      - making us aware of new research concerning musical sources
      - alerting us to institutions not yet in the siglum directory
      - making us aware of new research concerning sources
      - informing us of performances that involve music found in RISM
      - translating the RISM brochure or Wikipedia articles into their local language

      Libraries can support RISM by:
      - opening up their collections to RISM contributors
      - supporting their work by offering work space, Internet access, etc.
      - offering staff to work on the project (training is provided free from RISM)
      - sending RISM data from local catalogs about sources not yet in RISM

      Anybody can:
      - contribute financially. All donations are welcome! (Receipt provided.)
       
    15. How is RISM structured?
      RISM relies on the work of individuals and working groups from around the world who catalog the musical sources in their own country in the international RISM database. Information about the structure of RISM can be found here.
       
    16. How can I find a RISM contact person near me?
      Please consult the list of RISM working groups worldwide. If your country is not listed, please contact us.

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    Secondary literature abbreviations

    Secondary literature most frequently cited in biographical data (pop-up windows or full records)

    Need help? contact@rism.info

    Brown-StrattonBMB James D. Brown and Stephen S. Stratton. British Musical Biography. A Dictionary of Musical Artists, Authors and Composers Born in Britain and Its Colonies. London, 1897/ reprint 1971.
    CohenE|2    Aaron I. Cohen. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers, 2nd ed., 2 vol. New York: Books & Music, 1987.
    ČSHS Gracian Černušák, Bohumír Štědron, and Zdenko Nováček. Československý hudební slovnik osob a institucí. 2 vol. Praha: Státní hudební vydavatelství, 1963-1965.
    DEUMM/b Alberto Basso. Dizionario Enciclopedico Universale della Musica e dei Musicisti. Le Biografie. 8 vol. Torino: UTET, 1985-1988.
    DEUMM/b suppl. Alberto Basso. Dizionario Enciclopedico Universale della Musica e dei Musicisti. Appendice. Torino: UTET, 1990.
    EitnerQ Robert Eitner. Biographisch-bibliographisches Quellen-Lexikon der Musiker und Musikgelehrten der christlichen Zeitrechnung bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. 11 vol. Leipzig, 1900-1904. 
    FétisB|2 François-Joseph Fétis. Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique. 2nd ed., 8 vol. Paris, 1868-1870.
    FétisB|2 suppl. Arthur Pougin. Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique par F.-J. Fétis. Supplément et complément. 2 vol. Paris, 1878-1880.
    Frank-AltmannTL|1|5 Paul Frank and Wilhelm Altmann. Kurzgefaßtes Tonkünstler-Lexikon. Erster Teil: Neudruck der Ausgabe von 1936. 15th ed., vol. 1. 1936/ reprint Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen's Verlag,  1971.
    Frank-AltmannTL|1|5 suppl. Burchard Bullin, Florian Noetzel, and Helmut Rösner. Kurzgefaßtes Tonkünstler-Lexikon. Zweiter Teil: Ergänzungen und Erweiterungen seit 1937. 15th ed., vol. 2-3. Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofen's Verlag, 1974-1978. 
    GarveyJacksonW Barbara Garvey Jackson. "Say can you deny me". A guide to surviving music by women from the 16th through the 18th centuries Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 1994.
    Grove|6 Stanley Sadie, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 20 vol. London: Macmillan, 1980.
    Grove|7 Stanley Sadie, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed., 29 vol. London: MacMillan, 2001.
    Kutsch-RiemensGSL|4 Karl-Josef Kutsch and Leo Riemens. Großes Sängerlexikon. 4th ed., 7 vol. München: Saur, 2003. 
    LdMk Hermann Josef Schneider. Lexikon zur deutschen Musikkultur. Böhmen, Mähren, Sudetenschlesien. 2 vol. München: Langen-Müller/Herbig, 2000.
    MCL Hermann Mendel and August Reißmann. Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon. Eine Encyklopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften. 11 vol. Berlin, 1870-1879.
    MGG Friedrich Blume, ed. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. 14 vol. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1949.
    MGG suppl. Friedrich Blume, ed. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Supplement. 2 vol. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1973-1979.
    MGG|2/s Ludwig Finscher, ed. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Sachteil. 10 vol. Kassel: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart: Metzler, 1994-1998, 1999. 
    MGG|2/p Ludwig Finscher, ed. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Personenteil. 17 vol. Kassel: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart: Metzler, 1999-2007.
    MGG|2 suppl. Ilka Sühring. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Supplement. Kassel: Bärenreiter; Stuttgart: Metzler, 2008.
    SCHML Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht. Schlesisches Musiklexikon. Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag, 2001.
    Sohlmans|2 Hanse Åstrand. Sohlmans musiklexikon. 2nd ed., 5 vol. Stockholm, 1975-1979.
    StiegerO Franz Stieger. Opernlexikon. 11 vol. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1975-1983.
    RiemannL|1|2/p Wilibald Gurlitt. Riemann Musik-Lexikon. Personenteil. 12th ed., 2 vol. Mainz: Schott, 1959-1961.
    RiemannL|1|2/p suppl. Carl Dahlhaus. Riemann Musik-Lexikon. Ergänzungsband Personenteil. 12th ed., 2 vol. Mainz: Schott, 1972-1975. 
    RiemannL|1|3 Wolfgang Ruf. Riemann Musik-Lexikon. 5 vol. Mainz: Schott, 2012. 
    VollhardtC 1899 Reinhard Vollhardt: Geschichte der Cantoren und Organisten von den Städten im Königreich Sachsen. Berlin, 1899/ reprint Leipzig: Peters, 1978.

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    General abbreviations and descriptions

    Name attributions: You may see these designations appear after a name.

    verifiedAttribution is certain.
    ascertainedThe name is partially present or entirely absent from the source, but attribution is (reasonably) certain and based on comparison with concordant sources, secondary literature, or other scholarly resources.
    conjecturalThe name is a reasonable guess based on the secondary literature.
    doubtfulAuthorship is in question.
    allegedThe name appears on the source, but the attribution is questionable or doubtful.
    misattributedThe name is on the source but is incorrect.


    The field "Form" in some printed editions:

    Chbchoirbook
    Chor-Pchorus score
    KLApiano score/vocal score
    kpl.complete
    Orgel-Porgan score
    Pfull score
    Stparts
    Tabtablature


    Other abbreviations:

    Autographautograph manuscript
    ?Autograph?possible autograph manuscript
      
    Chbchoirbook (in printed music)
    Chor-Pchorus score (in printed music)
      
    date 
    1691in 1691
    1782abefore 1782
    1782cabout (ca.) 1782
    1782pafter 1782
    18.inbeginning of the 18th century
    18.memiddle of the 18th century
    18.exend of the 18th century
    18.1t18th century, first third
    18.3q18th century, 3rd quarter
    18.2d18th century, 2nd half
    18.sc18th century
    18/1918th/19th century
    1691*born 1691
    1797a+died before 1782
    1782p+died after 1782
      
    ex.copies (for printed music)
      
    f.folio(s)
    fdsfolds (gatherings)
      
    incpl.incomplete
      
    keys 
    major (mode): A, B, C, D, E, F, G, C#, D#, F#, G#, Ab, Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, Gb 
    minor (mode): a, b, c, d, e, f, g, a#, d#, f#, g#, ab, bb, cb, db, eb, gb 
    Examples: 
    AA major
    BB major
    bB minor
    f#F-sharp minor
    fxF-sharp minor
    BbB-flat major
      
    Ecclesiastical modes: 
    1t1st tone (Dorian)
    1tt1st tone (Dorian), transposed
    2t2nd tone (Hypodorian)
    2tt2nd tone (Hypodorian), transposed
    3t3rd tone (Phrygian)
    3tt3rd tone (Phrygian), transposed
    4t4th tone (Hypophrygian)
    4tt4th tone (Hypophrygian), transposed
    5t5th tone (Lydian)
    5tt5th tone (Lydian), transposed
    6t6th tone (Hypolydian)
    6tt6th tone (Hypolydian), transposed
    7t7th tone (Mixolydian)
    7tt7th tone (Mixolydian), transposed
    8t8th tone (Hypomixolydian)
    8tt8th tone (Hypomixolydian), transposed
    9t9th tone (Aeolian)
    9tt9th tone (Aeolian), transposed
    10t10th tone (Hypoaeolian)
    10tt10th tone (Hypoaeolian), transposed
    11t11th tone (Ionian)
    11tt11th tone (Ionian), transposed
    12t12th tone (Hypoionian)
    12tt12th tone (Hypoionian), transposed
    Byzantine modes: 
    1byzĒchos prōtos (First mode of Byzantine music)
    2byzĒchos deuteros (Second mode of Byzantine music)
    3byzĒchos tritos (Third mode of Byzantine music)
    4byzĒchos tetartos (Fourth mode of Byzantine music)
    5byzĒchos plagios prōtos (First plagal mode of Byzantine music)
    6byzĒchos plagios deuteros (Second plagal mode of Byzantine music)
    7byzĒchos barys (Third plagal mode of Byzantine music)
    8byzĒchos plagios tetartos (Fourth plagal mode of Byzantine music
      
    KLApiano score/vocal score (in printed music)
    kpl.complete (in printed music)
      
    lvsleaves
      
    olimold shelfmark
    Orgel-Porgan score (in printed music)
      
    Pfull score (in printed music)
    p.page(s)
      
    RISM A/Icross-reference to RISM series A/I
    RISM B/cross-reference to RISM series B
      
    Stparts (in printed music)
      
    Tabtablature (in printed music)

    To top

    List of instrument abbreviations

    Contents:

    General abbreviations and concepts

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Examples

    iSol

    continuous solo instrument in a work, typically with a separately written-out part (not used for instruments that have extensive solo passages, such as an oboe in a cantata)

    Nur für Soloinstrumente in Konzerten.

     

     

    iSol: vl

    brasses

    brass instruments (cor, clno or tr, trb)

    Blechblasinstrumente

    cuivres

    ottoni

     

    strings

    strings

    Streichinstrumente

    cordes

    archi

     

    winds

    winds (brass and woodwind)

    Blasinstrumente

    instruments à vent

    strumenti a fiato

     

    woodwinds

    woodwinds

    Holzblasinstrumente

    bois

    legni

     

    orch

    orchestra

    Orchester

    orchestre

    orchestra

     

    pf (cemb)
    etc.

    Add alternative scoring possibilities to the original requirements in brackets.

     

     

     

    pf (orch)

    T (S)

    Additions to any instrument to indicate a range

    Use the following before any instrument to make it:

    Kann einem Instrument vorangestellt werden:

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Examples

    s-

    soprano

    Sopran

     

     

    s-saxofono

    a-

    altoAlt  

    a-trb

    contra-

    contra

    Kontra

      

    contra-fag

    contra-a-

    contraltoKontra-Alt  

    contra-a-cl (in E|b)

    t-

    tenorTenor  

    t-trb

    bariton-

    baritoneBariton  

    bariton-trb

    b-

    bassBass  

    b-trb

    Additions to any instrument to indicate a type

    Use the following after an instrument

    Kann einem Instrument angehängt werden.

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Examples

    ad lib

    ad libitum

    ad libitum

    ad libitum

    ad libitum

    ob ad lib

    conc

    concertino, concertato

    concertino, concertato

     

     

    S conc
    vl conc
    ob conc

    d'amore

    d'amore

    d'amore

     

     

    ob d'amore

    .picc

    piccolo

    piccolo

     

     

    cl.picc,
    fl.picc

    princ

    principale (i.e. concertante)

    principale

     

     

    vl princ
    vlc princ

    clno princ

    rip

    ripieno

    ripieno

     

     

    S rip
    vl rip
    b rip

    Additions to any wind instrument to indicate a tuning other than standard tuning

    Bezeichnet die Stimmung eines Blasinstrumentes

    RISM

    Examples

    in A

    cl in A

    in E|b

    cor in E|b

    etc.

     

    Unspecified or unknown types or numbers of instruments

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Examples

    (X)

    an unspecified number

    Eine unbekannte Anzahl einer Stimme.

     

     

    vl (X)

    V (X)

    dessus

    dessus, soprano (instrumental)

    dessus (instr., Sopranlage)

    dessus (instrumentale, soprano)

    strumentale superiore

     

    hautecontre

    hautecontre (usually an unspecified alto instrument)

    Hautecontre (instr., in Altlage)

    haute-contre (instrumentale)

    haute-contre, strumento contralto

     

    i

    unknown/unspecified instrument, general instrumental part

    Unbekannte(s) Instrument/ Instrumentalstimme

    partie instrumentale

    parte strumentale

    i

    taille

    tenor instrument/part

    Taille (instr.)

    taille (instrument)

    strumento tenore

     

    treble

    highest voice (instrument)

    Treble (instr., höchste Stimmlage)

    partie instrumentale la plus aiguë dans le mouvement

    parte strumentale più acuta nel movimento

     

    no further indication

    no further details of the part designations are available

    Keine weitere Angabe

     

     

     

    no indication

    instrumentation is not specified

    Keine Angabe

    return to contents

    Vocal (voice) terms

    Solo voices

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    major vocal parts   

    S

    soprano, cantus, discant, discantus, tiple (vocal)

    Sopran (vokal), Cantus, Diskant

    soprano (vocale), cantus, discantus

    soprano (vocale), cantus, discantus

    Mezzo-S

    mezzo-soprano (vocal)

    Mezzosopran (vokal)

    mezzo-soprano (vocale)

    mezzosoprano (vocale)

    A

    alto (vocal)

    Alt (vokal)

    alto (vocale)

    contralto (vocale)

    Contra-A

    contralto (vocal)

    Kontra-Alt

    contralto (vocale)

    contralto (vocale)

    T

    tenor (vocal)

    Tenor (vokal)

    ténor (vocale)

    tenore (vocale)

    Bariton

    baritone (vocal)

    Bariton (vokal)

    bariton (vocale)

    baritono (vocale)

    B

    bass (vocal)

    Bass (vokal)

    basse (vocale)

    basso (vocale)

    voice (vocal), solo vocal part

    Solovokalstimme

    partie vocale

    parte vocale

    other vocal

     

     

     

     

    Dessus

    dessus, soprano (vocal)

    Dessus (vokal, Sopranlage)

    dessus (vocale, soprano)

    vocale superiore

    Sprechstimme

    spoken voice, spoken roles, narrator, Sprechstimme

    Sprechstimme

    partie parlée

    voce recitante

    Treble

    highest voice (vocal)

    Treble (vokal, höchste Stimmlage)

    partie vocale la plus aiguë dans le mouvement

     

    parte vocale più acuta nel movimento

    V 5

    quinta vox, 5th voice (vocal)

    Quinta Vox

    cinquième voix

    quinta voce

    V 6 

    sexta vox, 6th voice (vocal)

    Sexta Vox

    sixième voix

    sesta voce

    Vag

    vagans (additional vocal voice)

    Vagans

     

     

     

    Chorus

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    major chorus parts   

    Coro

    choir, chorus

    Chor

    chœur

    coro

    Coro S

    the soprano part in a chorus

    Sopranstimme im Chor

     

     

    Coro A

    the alto part in a chorus

    Altstimme im Chor

     

     

    Coro T

    the tenor part in a chorus

    Tenorstimme im Chor

     

     

    Coro B

    the bass part in a chorus

    Bassstimme im Chor

     

     

    other chorus    

    Coro V

    an unspecified or unknown chorus part

    Unbekannte Stimme im Chor

     

     

    Coro 1:

    Coro 2: etc.

    use to differentiate between multiple choirs.
    Examples:

    Coro 1: S

    Coro 1: A

    Coro 2: S

    Coro 2: A

     

     

     

     

    Coro di fanciulli

    children's choir, boys' choir, girls' choir

    Kinderchor

    chœur d'enfants

     

    coro di fanciulli

    Coro femminile

    womens' choir

    Frauenchor

    chœur de femmes

    coro femminile

    Coro maschile

    mens' choir

    Männerchor

    chœur d'hommes

    coro maschile

    return to contents

    Strings

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    major instrument groups    

    vl

    violin (do not differentiate between 1st and 2nd violins)

    Violine

    violon

    violino

    Link to Wikipedia

     

     

    vl conc

    violin concertino

    Violino concertino

    violino concertino

    violino concertino

     

     

    vl princ

    violin principale

    Violino principale

    violino principale

    violino principale

     

     

    vl rip

    violin ripieno

    Violino ripieno

    violino ripieno

    violino ripieno

     

     

    vl solo

    solo violin part (but not for concertos)

    Solovioline

    violon seul

    violino solo

     

    vla

    viola

    Viola

    viole

    viola

    Link to Wikipedia

     

     

    a-vla

    alto viola

    Altviola

    viole alto

    viola alto

     

    vlc

    violoncello, cello

    Violoncello

    violoncelle

    violoncello

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    cb

    contrabass, double bass

    Kontrabass

    contrebasse

    contrabasso

     

    other strings

     

     

     

     

     

    baryton

    baryton (bass string instrument)

    Baryton (Streichinstrument mit Resonanzsaiten)

    baryton

    viola di bordone

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    fiddle

    fiddle

    Fidel

    vièle, vielle

    viella, fidula

     

    violetta

    violetta, violetta piccola (a descant viol, can also mean violin)

    Violetta (eine Viole)

    violetta

    violetta

     

    violetta marina

    violetta marina

    Violetta marina

    violetta marina

    violetta marina

     

    vla basso

    viola basso

    Bassviola

    basse de viole

    viola bassa

     

    vla bastarda

    viola bastarda

    Viola bastarda

    viola bastarda

    viola bastarda

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    vla d'amore

    viola d'amore

    Viola d'amore

    viole d'amour

    viola d'amore

     

    vla da braccio

    viola da braccio

    Viola da braccio

    viola da braccio

    viola da braccio

     

    vla da gamba

    viola da gamba, viol, gamba

    Viola da gamba

    viole de gambe

    viola da gamba

     

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    s-vla da gamba

    treble viola da gamba

    Sopran-Viola da gamba

    dessus de viole

    viola da gamba soprano

     

     

    t-vla da gamba

    tenor viola da gamba

    Tenor-Viola da gamba

    viole de gambe ténor

    viola da gamba tenore

     

     

    b-vla da gamba

    bass viola da gamba

    Bass-Viola da gamba

    basse de viole

    basso di viola

     

    vla pomposa

    viola pomposa

    Viola pomposa

    viola pomposa

    viola pomposa

     

    vlne

    violone (related to double bass)

    Violone

    violone

    violone

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    strings

    strings

    Streichinstrumente

    cordes

    archi

    return to contents

    Woodwinds

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    major instrument groups    

    fl

    flute, transverse flute (held horizontally, in C)

    Flöte, Querflöte

    flûte (traversière)

    flauto (traverso)

    Link to MIMO

     

     

    fl.picc

    piccolo, ottavino

    Piccoloflöte

    piccolo

    flauto piccolo

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    fl d'amore

    flûte d'amour, flauto d'amore (in A)

    Flauto d'amore (in A oder A|b)

    flûte d'amour

    flauto d'amore

    Link to MIMO

     

    fl dolce

    flauto dolce (can refer to recorder, or flute in some 19th-century sources)

    Flauto dolce (italienischer Begriff für Blockflöte, meint im 19. Jh. auch die Querflöte)

    flûte douce

    flauto dolce

     

     

    fl quarto

    flauto quarto (small flute tuned a fourth above a flute)

    Quartflöte

     

    flauto quarto

     

     

    fl terzino

    Flute in E|b, soprano flute, third flute, tierce flute (flute tuned a minor third above a flute)

    Terzflöte (in E|b)

    flûte tierce

    flauto terzino

    Link to MIMO 

     

    flautino

    flautino (can refer to soprano recorder or piccolo)

    Flautino, Sopraninoblockflöte

    flautino

    flautino

     

    ob

    oboe (in C)

    Oboe

    hautbois

    oboe

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia 

     picc.obpiccolo oboe, oboe musette, musette (do not confuse with the musette from the bagpipe family)
     
        
     

    ob grande

    oboe grande (a mezzo-soprano oboe usually in A or B|b)

    Oboe grande (in Mezzosopranlage, Stimmung in A oder B|b)   
     ob d'amoreoboe d'amore (in A, a minor third lower than oboe)Oboe d'amore (in A)hautbois d'amouroboe d'amore

    Link to MIMO 

     a-obAltoboe, any alto oboe.    

     

    cor inglese

    cor anglais, English horn (in F)

    Englischhorn (in Altlage, zur Oboenfamilie gehörig, Stimmung in F)

    cor anglais

    corno inglese

    Link to MIMO 

     

    ob da caccia

    oboe da caccia, oboe di silva (a curved oboe, in F)

    Oboe da caccia (gekrümmte Oboe, in F)

    hautbois de chasse

    oboe da caccia

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    taille de hautbois

    taille de hautbois

     taille de hautbois Link to MIMO
     voce umanavoce umana, vox humana (a tenor oboe in F)   

    Link to MIMO

     

    t-ob

    Any tenor oboe.

    Tenoroboe

    hautbois tenor

     

    oboe tenore 

     

     

    heckelphon

    heckelphone

        
     b-ob

    Any bass oboe.

        

    cl

    clarinet (indicate tuning when known)

    Klarinette (Bitte die Stimmung angeben, wenn sie bekannt ist.)

    clarinette

    clarinetto

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    b-cl

    bass clarinet (in B|b)

    Bassklarinette (in B|b)

    clarinette basse

    clarinetto basso

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    cl in A

    clarinet in A

    A-Klarinette

     

     

     

     

    cl in E|b

    E|b clarinet

    Es-Klarinette

     

     

     

     

    cor di bassetto

    basset horn (clarinet family)

    Bassetthorn (in Tenorlage, zur Klarinettenfamilie gehörig)

    cor de basset

    corno di bassetto

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    chalumeau

    chalumeau (single-reed instrument, precursor of the clarinet)

    Chalumeau (Einfachrohrblattinstrument, Vorläufer der Klarinette)

    chalumeau

    salmoè

     

    saxofono

    saxophone, sax. Use prefix s-, a-, etc. if known.

    Saxophon (Bitte die Stimmung angeben, wenn sie bekannt ist.)

    saxophone

    saxofono, sassofono

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    s-saxofono

    soprano saxophone

    (in B|b)

    Sopransaxophon

    (in B|b)

    saxophone soprano

    saxofono/ sassofono soprano

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

     

    a-saxofono

    alto saxophone (in E|b)

    Altsaxophon (in E|b)

    saxophone alto

     

     

    Link to MIMO 

     

    t-saxofono

    tenor saxophone (in B|b)

    Tenorsaxophon

    (in B|b)

    saxophone ténor

    saxofono/ sassofono tenore

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    bariton-saxofono

    baritone saxophone

    Baritonsaxophon

    saxophone baryton

    saxofono/ sassofono baritono

     

    fag

    bassoon

    Fagott

    basson

    fagotto

    Link to Wikipedia 

     

    contra-fag

    contrabassoon, double bassoon

    Kontrafagott

    contrebasson

    controfagotto

     

     

    t-fag

    tenor bassoon, tenoron (in F)

    Tenorfagott (in F)

    basson quinte

    fagotto tenore

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    other winds     

    bombarde

    bombardon, bombarde, pommer; alto, tenor, and bass shawm (low woodwind instrument, typically with a double reed, with one key or keyless)

    Bombarde, Pommer (Doppelrohrblattinstrument)

    bombarde

    bombarda

    Link to MIMO 

    chirimía

    chirimía (a type of Spanish shawm, double-reed instrument)

    Chirimía (Doppelrohrblattinstrument, spanischer Begriff für eine Art Oboe)

    chirimía

     

    Link to Wikipedia 

    ciaramella

    shawm (but see also piffero and bombarde [for the pommer])

    Ciaramella (eine Schalmei, Doppelrohrblattinstrument)

    chalemie

    ciaramella

     

    fiffaro

    fife (similar to a piccolo)

    Querpfeife (hohe Querflöte), Schwegel (in der Volksmusik)

    fifre

    fiffaro

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

    ocarina 

    ocarina (round, hollow flute, typically shaped like an elongated egg)

    Okarina (eine Gefäßflöte)

    ocarina

    ocarina

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia 

    piffero

    shawm, especially high ones (but see chalumeau); fife; small flute  

    Piffero (zur Oboenfamilie gehörig)

    piffero

    piffero

     

    recorder

    recorder

    Blockflöte

    flûte à bec

    flauto dolce

     

     

    sopranino

    sopranino recorder (in F)

    Sopraninoblockflöte

    (in F)

    sopranino

    sopranino

    Link to MIMO 

    woodwinds

    woodwinds

    Holzblasinstrumente

    bois

    legni

     

    zufoletto

    zufoletto

    Zufoletto

    zufoletto

    zufoletto

    return to contents

    Brass

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    banda 

    wind band, usually brass, but can also mean brass instruments or brass plus percussion

    Blaskapelle (oft um Schlagwerk erweitert)

    orchestre d'harmonie

    banda musicale

     

    althorn

    althorn (usually in E|b; see also saxhorn and tenor horn)

    Althorn (in E|b; vgl. mit Saxhorn und Tenorhorn)

    bugle alto

    flicorno contralto

    Link to MIMO

    b

    bass (instrumental), also for unspecified bass instrument

    Bass (instr.), zumeist ein tiefes Streichinstrument

    basse (instrumentale)

    basso (strumento)

     

    bariton 

    baritone, baritone horn (valved brass instrument in B|b, similar to but not the same as the euphonium)

    Baritonhorn (in B|b)

    euphonium

    eufonio, flicorno baritono

    Link to Wikipedia 

    bombardino

    flicorno, bombardino (bugle/flugelhorn family)

    Bombardino (vgl. mit Euphonium)

     

    bombardino

     

    bombardone

    bass tuba, bombardon

    Bombardone, Basstuba

    bombardon

    bombardone

     

    brasses

    brass instruments

    Blechblasinstrumente

    cuivres

    ottoni

     

    bugle 

    bugle (no valves, typically in B|b or C)

    Horn (ohne Ventile, in C oder B|b)

    bugle

    bugle, flicorno

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    cimbasso

    cimbasso (trombone family, pitched in C, F, E|b or B|b)

    Cimbasso (tiefe Ventilposaune in C, F, E|b oder B|b)

    cimbasso

    cimbasso

    Link to Wikipedia

    clno 

    clarino, clairon, clarion (trumpet family)

    Klarine (zur Trompetenfamilie gehörig)

    clarine

    clarino

    Link to Wikipedia

    cnto

    cornetto, cornett, zink (Renaissance wind instrument; for the trumpet-like brass instrument, see kornetto)

    Zink (Gilt als Blechblasinstrument wegen seines Kesselmundstücks.)

    cornet

    cornetto

    Link to Wikipedia

    cor

    horn, French horn, hunting horn (in F)

    Horn, Waldhorn (meist in F, auch B|b oder E|b)

    cor d'harmonie

    corno

     

    cor a chiavi

    keyed bugle, key bugle, Kent bugle

    Klappenhorn

    bugle à clefs

    cornetta a chiavi

    Link to MIMO

    cor basso

    bass horn (semi-spherical mouthpiece like a trumpet, looks like a bassoon)

    Basshorn (mit Kesselmundstück, aus der Familie der Grifflochhörner, einem Fagott ähnlich aussehend)

    cor grave

    corno basso

    Link to MIMO

    cor crom

    valve horn, chromatic cor

    Chromatisches Horn

    cor chromatique

    corno cromatico

     

    cor da cacciacorno da caccia, hunting hornCorno da caccia, Jagdhorncorno da cacciacorno da caccia 

    dugetto

    dugetto (a low trumpet, in bass clef)

    dugetto

    dugetto

    dugetto

     

    euphonium

    euphonium

    Euphonium (zur Familie der Bügelhörner gehörig)

    euphonium

    eufonio

     

    fanfare

    fanfare trumpet, herald's trumpet, Aida trumpet (usually in E|b)

    Fanfarentrompete, Heroldstrompete

    fanfare

    fanfara

    Link to MIMO

    flügelhorn

    flugelhorn (in B|b)

    Flügelhorn (in B|b, selten in C)

    bugle à piston

    flicorno (soprano)

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    harmonie-b

    basse d'harmonie (ophicleide; but see also ophicleide)

    Harmoniebass

    basse d'harmonie

    strumento più basso di una banda

     

    helikon

    helicon (tuba family, tubing goes around head and arm)

    Helikon, Helikontuba

    hélicon

    helicon, elicone

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    kornettino

    cornettino (brass instrument!)

    Kornettino

    cornettino (cuivre)

    cornettino (ottone)

     

    kornetto

    cornet (brass instrument, similar to trumpet, not cnto!)

    Kornetto (nicht cnto)

    cornet (pas cnto)

    cornetto (non cnto)

    Link to Wikipedia

    lituus

    lituus (instrument with long tube that curves up at the end)

    Lituus

    lituus

    lituus

    Link to MIMO

    ophicleide

    ophicleide (keyed brass instrument; see also harmonie-b)

    Ophikleide (zur Familie der Klappenhörner gehörig)

    ophicléide

    oficleide

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    piston

    piston, rotary valve cornet

    Ein (Ventil-)Kornett

    cornet à pistons

    cornetto a pistoni

     

    posthorn

    post horn, posthorn

    Posthorn

    cor postal

    corno postale

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    principale

    principale (refers to trumpets)

    Prinzipaltrompete

     

     

     

    saxhorn

    saxhorn. Some languages call some or all instruments of the family "saxhorn" while other languages use unique names. Always add pitch if known.

    Saxhorn

    saxhorn

    saxhorn

    Link to Wikipedia

    serpentone

    serpent

    Serpent (in Basslage, zur Zinkenfamilie gehörig)

    serpent

    serpentone

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    t-cor

    mellophone, mellophonium, tenor cor (in F)

    Mellophon (in F, zur Familie der Hörner gehörig)

     

     

    Link to Wikipedia

    tb

    tuba

    Tuba

    tuba

    tuba

    Link to Wikipedia

    tenor horn

    tenor horn, E|b horn (valved brass instrument of alto pitch, usually E|b; see also althorn and saxhorn)

    Tenorhorn

    bugle ténor

    flicorno tenore

     

    tr

    trumpet

    Trompete

    trompette

    tromba

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    tr a chiavi

    keyed trumpet

    Klappentrompete

    trompette à clefs

    tromba a chiavi

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    tr crom 

    valve trumpet

    Chromatische (Ventil-)Trompete

    trompette chromatique

    tromba cromatica

     

    trb

    trombone (in B|b)

    Posaune

    trombone

    trombone

    Link to Wikipedia

     

    a-trb

    alto trombone (in E|b or F, common from 16th-18th centuries)

    Altposaune (in E|b oder F, stark verbreitet vom 16.-18. Jh. und darüberhinaus)

    trombone alto

    trombone alto

    Link to MIMO

     

    bariton-trb

    baritone trombone

    Baritonposaune

    trombone baryton

    trombone baritono

     

     

    t-trb

    tenor trombone (in B|b)

    Tenorposaune (in B|b)

    trombone ténor

    trombone tenore

    Link to MIMO

     

    b-trb

    bass trombone (in F, G, or B|b)

    Bassposaune (in F, G, oder B|b)

    trombone basse

    trombone basso

    Link to MIMO

     

    trb a pistoni

    valve trombone

    Ventilposaune

    trombone à pistons

    trombone a pistoni

     

    trombetta

    a small trumpet or tenor trombone

    Trombetta (kürzere, höher klingende Variante der Barocktrompete)

    petite trompette

    trombetta

     

    trombino

    a high trumpet

    Piccolotrompete

    trompette piccolo

    trombino

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    Plucked instruments

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    arciliuto

    archlute

    Erzlaute

    archiluth

    arciliuto

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia 

    arp

    harp

    Harfe

    harpe

    arpa

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    guit

    guitar

    Guitarre

    guitare

    chitarra

    Link to Wikipedia

    electric-guit

    electric guitar    
    b-electric-guitbass electric guitar    

    lira

    lyre

    Lyra

    lyre

    lira

    Link to Wikipedia

    lute

    lute

    Laute

    luth

    liuto

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    mandoline

    mandolin

    Mandoline

    mandoline

    mandolino

    Link to Wikipedia

    plck

    plucked instrument(s)

    Zupfinstrument(e)

    instrument(s) à cordes pincées

    strumento/i a pizzico

     

    requinto

    requinto (similar to a guitar)

    Requinto (Eine kleinere Gitarre)

    requinto

    requinto

     

    salterio

    psaltery (zither family)

    Psalterium, Psalter (zur Familie der Zithern gehörig)

    psaltérion

    salterio

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    theorbe 

    theorbo (lute family)

    Theorbe (zur Lautenfamilie gehörig)

    théorbe

    tiorba

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    zither

    zither

    Zither

    cithare

    zither

    Link to Wikipedia

    return to contents

    Percussion and other

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    batt

    drums, drum set, drum kit (battery)

    Schlagzeug

    batterie

    batteria

     

    birds singing

    birds singing (can be an unspecified instrument that is supposed to represent birdsong)

    Ein Instrument, das Vogelgezwitscher imitiert.

     

     

     

    campana

    bell, handbell (see also campanella, sonagli [sleigh bells])

    Glocke

    cloche

    campana

     

    campane tub

    chimes, tubular bells

    Röhrenglocken

    cloche tubulaire

    campane tubolari

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    campanella

    small bell (see also campana)

    Glöckchen

    clochettes

    campanella

     

    campanelli

    glock, bells (tuned metal bars arranged like a keyboard; one-octave models commonly but inaccurately called xylophone; see also lyra for the instrument played upright and held in the arm)

    Glockenspiel (Stabspiel, ein Metallophon)

    glockenspiel

    glockenspiel

    Link to Wikipedia

    carillon

    carillon

    Carillon, Glockenspiel

    carillon

    carillon

    Link to Wikipedia

    cassa rulante 

    tenor drum, parade drum

    Rührtrommel, Paradetrommel

    caisse roulante

    cassa rullante

    Link to Wikipedia

    castagnette

    castanets (held in one hand or attached by a handle)

    Kastagnetten

    castagnettes

    castagnette

    Link to Wikipedia

    cimb

    small cymbals, finger cymbals

    Zimbeln, Fingerzimbeln

    cymbales, sagattes

    cimbalini (a dita)

    Link to MIMO

    cimbalom

    dulcimer, cimbalom

    Zymbal, Hackbrett

    cymbalum

    cimbalom

    Link to Wikipedia

    claves

    claves (two cylindrical hardwood sticks) 

    Klanghölzer

    claves

    claves, legnetti

    Link to MIMO

    conga

    congas, conga drums

    Konga

    conga

    conga

    Link to Wikipedia

    cymb antiques

    antique cymbals, crotales (small tuned metal disks, played with a mallet)

    Antike Zimbeln, Crotales

    crotales

    crotales

    Link to Wikipedia

    glass harmonica

    glass harmonica, glass armonica, glass harmonium, bowl organ, hydrocrystalophone, armonica, harmonica (glass bowls rubbed with fingertips; for glasses instead of bowls, see musical glasses)

    Glasharmonika

    harmonica de verre

    armonica a bicchieri, glassarmonica

    Link to MIMO

    gong

    gong

    Gong

    gong

    gong

    Link to Wikipedia

    grancassa

    bass drum

    Große Trommel

    grosse caisse

    grancassa

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    kuckuck

    cuckoo

    Kuckuck

    coucou

    cuculo

     

    lyra 

    bell lyre, bell lyra, lyra glockenspiel (glockenspiel played upright and held in the arm)

    Lyra, Militär-Lyra (ein Metallophon)

     

     

    Link to Wikipedia

    maracas

    maracas

    Maracas

    maracas

    maracas

    Link to Wikipedia

    marimba

    marimba (typically with long metal tubes, played standing)

    Marimba, Marimbaphon

    marimba

    marimba

    Link to Wikipedia

    musical clock

    musical clock (a clock combined with a mechanical instrument that plays music)

    Flötenuhr

     

    orologio meccanico

     

    musical glasses

    musical glasses (glasses played by striking or rubbing; for bowls, see glass harmonica)

    Glasharfe

    verrillon, vérillon

    glasspiel, bicchieri musicali

     

    nacchere

    rattle

    Rassel

    hochet

    nacchere

     

    nachtigall

    nightingale

    Nachtigall

    rossignol

    usignolo

     

    piatti

    cymbal(s) (pair)

    Becken

    cymbales

    piatti

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    piatti cinesi

    Chinese cymbal(s) (cymbal with upturned edges and raised cup)

    Chinesische Zimbeln

    cymbales chinoises

    piatti cinesi

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    piatti sospesi

    suspended/hanging/hung/free cymbal(s)

    Hängende Zimbeln

    cymbales suspendues

    piatti sospesi

    Link to Wikipedia

    ratsche

    ratchet

    Ratsche

    crécelle

    raganella

    Link to Wikipedia

    sonagli

    sleigh bells

    Glockenstab, Schlittengeläut

    grelots

    sonagli

    Link to MIMO

    spoons 

    spoons

    Löffel

    cuillers, cuillères

    cucchiai

    Link to Wikipedia 

    stck

    percussion

    Schlagzeug, Schlagwerk

    batterie

    percussioni, batteria

     

    tam-tam

    gong, tam-tam

    Tamtam

    tam-tam

    tam-tam

    Link to Wikipedia

    tamb

    drum (also if the kind of drum is not specified)

    Trommel

    tambour

    tamburo

     

    tamb a corda

    string drum, lion roar, lion's roar (a drum with a string that is rubbed)

    Tambourin à cordes

    tambour(in) à cordes

    tamburo a corda

     

    tamb di provenza

    tabor, field drum, long drum

    Tambourin de Provence

    tambourin de Provence

    tamburo di Provenza

     

    tamb senza corda

    drum with snares off 

    Tambour sans cordes, Trommel ohne Schnarrsaiten

    tambour sans cordes

    tamburo senza corde

     

    tamb turco

    Turkish drum

    Große Trommel, Türkische Trommel

    tambour turc

    tamburo turco

     

    tamburello

    tambourine, hand drum

    Tamburello (eine Rahmentrommel)

    tambour de basque

    tamburello

    Link to MIMO

    Link to Wikipedia

    tamburino

    snare drum, military drum, side drum, concert drum

    Kleine Trommel

    caisse claire

    tamburino

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    timbales

    timbales (drum, shallower than tom-tom)

    Timbales (ein Trommelpaar)

    timbales

    timbales, timpanetti

    Link to Wikipedia

    timp

    timpani (one or more), kettle drum(s)

    Pauke(n)

    timbales

    timpani

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    tom-tom

    tom-tom (drum, has no snare)

    Tomtom (eine Trommel)

    tom-tom

    tom-tom

    Link to Wikipedia

    triangolo

    triangle

    Triangel

    triangle

    triangolo

    Link to MIMO

    vibrafono

    vibraphone, vibraharp, vibes

    Vibraphon (ein Metallophon)

    vibraphone

    vibrafono

    Link to Wikipedia

    xilofono

    xylophone (consisting of wooden bars struck with mallets, generally higher than marimba; see also marimba; do not confuse with campanelli)

    Xylophon (ein Aufschlagidiophon)

    xylophone

    xilofono

    Link to Wikipedia

    return to contents

    Keyboard instruments

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

    Link

    celesta

    celesta (keyboard instrument)

    Celesta

    celesta

    celesta

    Link to MIMO 

    Link to Wikipedia

    cemb

    cembalo, clavicembalo, spinet, virginal

    Cembalo, Clavicembalo

    clavecin

    clavicembalo, cembalo

     

    cemb 4hands

    cembalo, etc. four-hands 

    Cembalo vierhändig

    clavecin à quatre mains

    cembalo a quattro mani

     

    clav 

    clavecin

    Clavecin

    clavecin

    clavicembalo

     

    clavicordo

    clavichord

    Klavichord

    clavicorde

    clavicordo

     

    harmonium

    harmonium (a small reed organ)

    Harmonium

    harmonium

    armonium, armonio

     

    hpcd

    harpsichord

    Harpsichord

    harpsichord

    harpsichord

     

    keyb

    (unspecified) keyboard instrument

    Tasteninstrument

    instrument à clavier

    strumento a tastiera

     

    org

    organ

    Orgel

    orgue

    organo

     

    org 4hands

    organ four-hands

    Orgel vierhändig

    orgue à quattre mains

    organo a quattro mani

     

    organetto

    barrel organ, organo a rullo (not the accordion-like Italian folk instrument)

    Drehorgel, Leierkasten

    orgue de Barbarie

    organetto di Barberia

    Link to MIMO

    pf

    piano

    Pianoforte

    piano

    pianoforte

     

    pf 4hands

    piano four-hands

    Pianoforte vierhändig

    piano à quattre mains

    pianoforte a quattro mani

     

    physharmonica

    physharmonica (keyboard instrument, resembles harmonium)

    Physharmonika

    physharmonica

     

    Link to MIMO 

    spinetta

    spinet

    Spinett

    espinette, épinette

    spinetta

    Link to Wikipedia

    return to contents

    Basso continuo

    RISM

    English

    German

    French

    Italian

     

    b.fig

    bass, figured

    Bass, beziffert

    basse, chiffrée

    basso, cifrato

     

    bc 

    thoroughbass, basso continuo continuo

    Generalbass

    basse continue

    basso continuo

     

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